## A dynamic string data structure helper implementation.

In this article I will present to you a dynamic string data structure helper implementation. In C, a string is just an array of characters terminated with the null character (NUL in ASCII). Also, some times we handle a string by using a pointer to a buffer containing sequential characters terminated also with the null character. The C standard liibrary provides various functions for string manipulation but it seems that whenever we want to extend a string by using pointers we have to perform all the time memory reallocation which leads to a bad evolution of replicated code. In a recent project, I needed to create a string and append to it any number of new strings in order to extend it without using strcat, strcpy, strlen and realloc functions all the time. So, I created a simple dynamic string data structure which solved my specific problem and I would like to share it with you people.

## Implementation of breadth-first search algorithm in graphs.

The following function is applied onto a graph and it specifically implements the method of breadth-first search. To visit all nodes connected to node k of a graph, we put the k in a FIFO queue and then go into a loop, during which we get the next node from the queue and, if we have not already visited it, we visit it and push into the queue all nodes belonging to the adjacency list of this node, continuing this process until we empty the queue.

## Implementation of algorithms (without recursion) for preorder & level-order traversal of binary trees.

The iterative (non-recursive) function preorderTreeTraverse() can perform preorder traversing of a binary tree with the help of a stack that can hold pointers to nodes of the tree.

Also, the iterative (non-recursive) function layerTreeTraverse() can perform level-order traversing of a binary tree with the help of a queue that can hold pointers to nodes of the tree.

## Collection of useful recursive functions.

The elegant recursive solution to a problem is most of the times invaluable. Although the iterative solution of that problem is likely to have a better space and time complexity, it is often preferred to use the recursive version for clarity and simplicity. It is remarkable how easily a problem can be solved by use of a recursive manner. In this article we will try to record a collection of useful recursive functions:

## Implementation of an application for the sorting of an array of strings.

The following program demonstrates a significant processing operation on arrays of strings. More precisely, we present the re-sorting of a set of strings in order to classify them. So, we read the strings and place them in a temporary storage area (buffer) large enough to be able to store all, keeping in an array a pointer to each string. Then we re-sort the pointers (only pointers and not strings to increase the performance) to place the pointer to the “smallest” string at the first position of the array, the pointer to the next “largest” string at the second position of the array, and so on.

## Implementation of graph representation with an adjacency list.

The following program reads a set of edges that define a graph and creates a representation of this graph with an adjacency list. The adjacency list of a graph is an array of lists, one for each vertex, where the j-th list contains a linked list of the nodes which are connected with the j-th vertex.