## Ant Colony System (Swarm Algorithm).

**Taxonomy**

The Ant Colony System algorithm is an example of an Ant Colony Optimization method from the field of Swarm Intelligence, Metaheuristics and Computational Intelligence. Ant Colony System is an extension to the Ant System algorithm and is related to other Ant Colony Optimization methods such as Elite Ant System, and Rank-based Ant System.

## Cultural Algorithm (Physical Algorithm).

**Taxonomy**

The Cultural Algorithm is an extension to the field of Evolutionary Computation and may be considered a Meta-Evolutionary Algorithm. It more broadly belongs to the field of Computational Intelligence and Metaheuristics. It is related to other high-order extensions of Evolutionary Computation such as the Memetic Algorithm.

## Harmony Search (Physical Algorithm).

**Taxonomy**

Harmony Search belongs to the fields of Computational Intelligence and Metaheuristics.

## Simulated Annealing (Physical Algorithm).

**Taxonomy**

Simulated Annealing is a global optimization algorithm that belongs to the field of Stochastic Optimization and Metaheuristics. Simulated Annealing is an adaptation of the Metropolis-Hastings Monte Carlo algorithm and is used in function optimization. Like the Genetic Algorithm, it provides a basis for a large variety of extensions and specialization’s of the general method not limited to Parallel Simulated Annealing, Fast Simulated Annealing, and Adaptive Simulated Annealing.

## Memetic Algorithm (Physical Algorithm).

**Taxonomy**

Memetic Algorithms have elements of Metaheuristics and Computational Intelligence. Although they have principles of Evolutionary Algorithms, they may not strictly be considered an Evolutionary Technique. Memetic Algorithms have functional similarities to Baldwinian Evolutionary Algorithms, Lamarckian Evolutionary Algorithms, Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms, and Cultural Algorithms. Using ideas of memes and Memetic Algorithms in optimization may be referred to as Memetic Computing.

## Differential Evolution – Example 5.

I quote below a personal portable implementation (in C++) of a classic Differential Evolution algorithm used to maximize the function **f(x) = sin(x)** in the domain 0 <= x <= 2pi. You can compile the program with the g++ compiler.

## Genetic Algorithm – Example 4.

I quote below a personal portable implementation (in C++) of a classic genetic algorithm (evolutionary algorithm) used to maximize the function **f(x, y) = sin(x) * sin(y)** in the domain 0 <= x, y <= 2pi. You can compile the program with the g++ compiler.